Sunday, May 24, 2020
Increasing connectedness of the world community has affected the segmentation of certain groups within social structures. The experiences of various groups as this process has unfolded reveals that the segmentation has grown more drastic. Intentional hiring practices and lowered wages due to group identity indicate that portions of this segmentation are deliberate. Meanwhile, there appear to be indirect forces at work such as the changes in opportunity based on the context in which an individual is forced to partake in society from. These indirect forces stem largely from cultural and institutional values. While all of these experiences have been highlighted by international interaction they largely impact the social structures of individual nations rather than the world as a whole. Globalization has amplified the existence and visibility of deliberate and inherent stratification within nations by race, class, and gender. Stratification refers to the grouping of individuals within a society based on demographic characteristics. These groups are then arranged into a hierarchy based on the social desirability of the trait in question. The three main categorizations for stratification are race, class, and gender. These are not just distinctly segmented categories but rather they are a spectrum applied based on the degree to which the trait is expressed or perceived. Recognizing this categorization in society allows for the observation of similarities and differences betweenShow MoreRelatedThe Internet s Impact On Social Capital1375 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesshape societyÃ¢â¬â¢s capital. To examine this power the definition of social capital must be clarified. Former president of the American Political Science Association, Robert Putnam explains in his book Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community that Ã¢â¬Å"social capital refers to connections among individualsÃ¢â¬ and the mutual benefits that arise from these connections- a society with rem unerative or moral Ã¢â¬Å"isolated individuals is not necessarily rich in social capitalÃ¢â¬ (Putnam 18). To assessRead MoreAn Addictive Amount Of Social Media1595 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescommunicate online. This comes with a price, because when the mass of people are connecting with others and posting material online, they are more prone to become victims and/or initiators of cyberbullying. Victims of cyberbullying receive an increasing amount of pain, hate, and judgement. Because social media creates the perfect opportunity to share oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life, users take full advantage. They advertise themselves by posting constant selfies, posts, and status updates about how their feeling. TheirRead MoreMental Health Case Study800 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswell-being.  Another place control trial study conducted in New Zealand, reports a positive range of adjustment amount such as anger management, stress reduction in adolescents. There are numerous studies conducted in different areas across the world reveals the positive impact of program and improved mental health and well-being.  4. Recommendation #5: Reach out program- Innovative technology based program This program provides Austrailian curriculum based learning materials for teachersRead MoreSocial Media Has Painted My Worldview1198 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageschild born into a world coloured by electronics and filled with Web 2.0 discourse, social media has painted my worldview. It is difficult to imagine my world without social media and constant Ã¢â¬Å"oversharingÃ¢â¬ as this has been a significant aspect of my life for as long as I can remember. Since receiving my first cell phone in the sixth grade, my mother has always been on my speed-dial and is one of the contacts with whom I am always in constant communication. After dramatically increasing the amount ofRead MoreThe Impact Of Social Of Social Behavior On The Health Of Individuals And Communities Alike Essay924 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesexperience difficulties. Social trends in social behaviour are a subject of increasing study. In his book Bowling Alone, Putnam (2000) described how people in American society increasingly lack social interactions and have fewer close friends, and he discussed how this deficit of social interconnectedness endangers the health of individuals and communities alike. His observations arguably also apply to societies in other parts of the world. New technologies undoubtedly affect the ways we form and conduct ourRead MoreIs the Internet Good for Us?1494 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesInternational Airport. From a subjective viewpoint, has the Internet and other technologies added to our sense of connectedness and well being in our families and communities? The Internet was lauded as the technology that was going to connect the world together with the ability to communicate and work with people of like minds who may live around the corner or across the world. When it appears on the surface people are communicating more frequently with their intimate circles and others ofRead MoreThe Victims Of Teen Dating Violence And Substance Abuse796 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesConsequences of this type of victimization are of increasing public health concern. Several studies identified a significant correlation among victims of teen dating violence and substance abuse. Those committing the act were more likely to be under the influence of drugs an d alcohol, and victims show increasing signs of substance addiction to cope (Temple et al., 2013). Victims of teen dating violence can have increased problems associated with mental health, sexual risk behaviors, sexually transmittedRead More Increased Interdependence in the East Asian Community Essay example1059 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe notion for an East Asian Community has a long history, but has gained considerable traction since the late 1990s. The Asian Financial Crisis of 1997-98 underscored the need for such a regional bloc that aimed at connecting countries in the region. Since then numerous community building initiatives have been implemented such as the ASEAN+3, the Chiang Mai Initiative, and the East Asian Summit. In addition, the region has entered into a series of bilateral and multilateral Free Trade and EconomicRead MoreGlobalization And Cultural Change : Globalization930 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesglobally similar social attitudes, linguistic, global trades, through inc reased connectedness among countries and individuals worldwide. This globalization allows citizens to discover and explore other cultures. As globalization occurs, local cultures need to take an active role. With actively engaged local cultures, globalization can be a win-win situation in both world and local cultures and can lead citizens throughout the world to have more respect for other cultures. Moreover, the cultural globalizationRead MoreThe Salah: One of the 5 Pilars of Islam829 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesof Islam, signifying it as a key element of Islam. It is practiced throughout the Muslim world in various contexts (alone, in a group, various countries). The Salah is a very ridged and structured ritual that Muslims do multiple times a day. The Salah is a vital ritual in Islam; the layers of meaning that I will be discussing are integrating worship into daily life, submission to God, establishing a community of followers, and finally the implications Salah has when practiced in foreign environments
Monday, May 18, 2020
Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2700 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Sociology Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? With reference to HofstedeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s work on culture evaluate the types of adjustments in A leadership style that managers may need to make because of cultural differences. Illustrate your answer by comparing the advice you would give to the US Organizations: one setting up a wholly owned subsidiary in Japan and the other in Sweden. The administrators are considering, ways of perceiving things and creating decisions are usually inspired through societyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s traditions. Therefore, different leaders act and behave in different ways because of their cultural influenced minds. They can differ in terms of language, religious beliefs, personal relationships, attitude towards innovation, networks, etc. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Hofstedes Work on Culture" essay for you Create order Every nation is having multicultural people due to globalization and diversification of markets/countries. A personÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s culture is basically nurtured through the parents and family. It is then reinforced through schools, churches, friends and social circles, etc. There are also some factors that may cause a change or an Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"adjustmentÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ in a personÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s culture. For example, if an American manager start or shifts his/her position in Japan, s/he has to adjust the local culture. This Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"adjustmentÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ makes him/her more successful because s/he can now better understand the employeesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ and customersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ mindsets, trends in markets etc. and use this opportunity to become more successful. Whereas, a manager who is unable to welcome the new culture and adjust to it, may have problems with the success of the business. At the company level, managers and leaders should normali ze cultural differences and conflicts (while valuing and respecting individual cultures) to create an effective communication and understanding throughout the department levels. S/he should also create and follow policies that protect employees from all kinds of discrimination (especially during the recruitment and hiring process). ScheinÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s model of organizational culture is proposing (1984; 1991; 1992) in which Schein suggests that organizational culture is what a group learns over a period of time as the group solves its problems of survival.He states that the community is a model regarding essential assumptions which have been merged, identified or developed group of people as it grasp to cope with its issues of exterior variation and interior inclusion. The model exists at three levels, artefacts, values and basic assumptions. Artefacts are the visible organizational structures and processes. They include written and spoken language, the physical space and layout of the organization and the overt behavior of the individuals. Schein divides these into three levels. The first is concerned with the physical artefacts like company logos. The second level is concerned with behavior, including organizational rituals. The third level is concerned with organizational anecdotes, stories and myths, and organizational heroes and villains. Values are the social principles, goals and standards held within the culture to have intrinsic worth. They define what the members of the organization care about. They are unwritten rules that allow members of a culture to know what is expected of them. The organizational culture reflects the values of its employees. By using these values the members are able to make decisions in order to tackle problems, issues and to develop solutions. Schein suggests that culture is what a group learns over a period of time as the group solves its problems of survival. The model posited by Schein suggests organiza tional culture exists at three levels, artefacts, values and basic assumptions. Discovered behavior in any organizational grouping or community is an outcome of the values, ideas, techniques, habits, routines which are passed on from one demographic to another Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" in a sense Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âa social heritageÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã , which amounts for a set of solutions for problems that others may have met and solved before. This learned behavior, or social inheritance, of any community is called Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âcultureÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (Bilton, et al., 1987). Hofstede, G. (1980) has differentiated culture in four dimensions: (1) level of power distance, (2) individualism collectivism, (3) masculinity femininity and (4) uncertainty avoidance. [Source: https://usdkexpats.org/sites/default/files/images/hofstede.jpg] Doole and Lowe (2004) also show 3 essential components of culture: (1) Beliefs reflecting knowledge and assessments of particular situations and activiti es, (2) Values regarded what is considered to be appropriate behavior and (3) Customs concerning behavior in certain situations. They further introduce components like language, religion, education, social organizations, law and politics, response to technology, values and attitudes, etc. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âIndividuals who may do the right thing in normal situations behave differently under stress.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã Also, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âManagers tend to rely on explicit knowledge, because it can be codified, measured, and generalized.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (Nonaka and Takeuchi, 2011, pp. 59-60) Nonaka and Takeuchi (2011) share some interesting insights of Japanese leaders: Japan has a number of phronetic (acquired from experience, enables people to make prudent judgments in a timely fashion and take actions guided by values and morals) leaders, who possess six abilities: (1) They can assess what is good, (2) quickly grasp the essence of situations, (3) create contexts for learning, ( 4) communicate eÃâÃ ¬Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ectively (5) exercise political power to bring people together and (6) encourage the development of practical wisdom in others through apprenticeship and mentoring. By HofstedeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s analyzes Comparison of Japan and Sweden with USA using HofstedeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s cultural dimensions: Japan: [Source: https://geert-hofstede.com/japan.html] Taking the 6DÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s (HofstedeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s six cultural dimensions) and comparisons with Japan, here are some scenarios that managers/leaders must account for by being Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"adaptiveÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢: Power Distance: The power distance is a little bit more and the Japs are always conscious of their hierarchical position in any social setting and act accordingly. Japan has always been a meritocratic society and perhaps thatÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s the reason of its slow decision making process due to the slow decision and approval of each layer as the top management doesnÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢t take fast and Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"one guyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ decision. Individualism: This dimension is far lower than the USA. This is because Japan is a collective society and they assume themselves as Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âweÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã rather than Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âIÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã . They are more private and reserved than other Asian countries. Masculinity: The Japs are more competitive, workaholic and persistent in pursuing achievements. This leads to more gap between the feminine groups as they find it very challenging in competing with men, especially in the corporate sectors. Uncertainty Avoidance: The Japs are best example in learning and acting in times of ambiguity. Even though Japan is prone to natural disasters and other uncertainties, they know how to deal with situations, especially at corporate levels where reports submitted to managers predict the risk factors in proposing or continuing any project. Pragmatism: In corporate Japan, there exists a long term orientation in the constantly high rate of investment in RD even in economically difficult times, higher own capital rate, priority for steady growth of market share rather than to a quarterly profit, and so on. They all serve the durability of the companies. The idea behind it is that the companies are not here to make money every quarter for the shareholders, but to serve the stakeholders and society at large for many generations to come. Indulgence: Japan has a low indulgence ratio. This is because of cultural Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"restrainÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ that are causing the Japs to be in a pessimist and cynicism situation. [Source: https://geert-hofstede.com/sweden.html] Now, letÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s compare the 6DÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s with Sweden: Power Distance: There are a few differences as compared to USA. This is because the Swedish people are independent, have equal rights, superiors are accessible and the availability of coaching leader and management facilitates. Power is decentralized and managers count on the experience of their team members. Employees expect to be consulted. Control is disliked and attitude towards managers are informal and on first name basis. Communication is direct and participative. Individualism: Again, there is little difference as compared to the USA. This means there is a high preference for a loose-knit social framework in which individuals are expected to take care of themselves and their immediate families only. In individualistic societies offense causes guilt and a loss of self-esteem, the employer/employee relationship is a contract based on mutual advantage, hiring and promotion decisions are supposed to be based on merit only, management is the management of individuals. Masculinity: Sweden is a very much feminine society. An effective manager is supportive of his/her people, and decision making is achieved through involvement. Managers strive for consensus and people value equality, solidarity and quality in their working lives. Conflicts are resolved by compromise and negotiation and Swedes are known for their long discussions until consensus has been reached. Incentives such as free time and flexible work hours and place are favored. Uncertainty Avoidance: Sweden has a very low preference for avoiding uncertainty and the societies maintain a more relaxed attitude in which practice counts more than principles and deviance from the norm is more easily tolerated. In societies exhibiting low UAI, people believe there should be no more rules than are necessary and if they are ambiguous or do not work they should be abandoned or changed. Schedules are flexible, hard work is undertaken when necessary, but not for its own sake, precision and punctuality do not come naturally, innovation is not seen as threatening. Pragmatism: Unfortunately, the data provided by Hofstede indicates that Sweden is seen to not express a clear preference on this dimension. Indulgence: Swedish people, therefore show willingness to release their impulses and desires with regard to enjoying life and having fun. They possess a positive attitude and have a tendency towards optimism. In addition, they place a higher degree of importance on leisure time, act as they please and spend money as they wish. Thus, managers may further need a Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"degree of fitÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ and local network support to help them choose or adapt to a particular location. HofstedeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s cultural dimensions is a best model that most managers use for setting up multinational structures. They often adapt or change their management styles as needed. Because of this they have opportunities to know and understand different cultural setting and use it to their advantage. Some advantages given by Mead and Andrews (2009) for Hofstede include: (1) it taps into deep cultural values and makes a significant national cultural comparison. (2) These DÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s have a great relevance to management and (3) The comparisons are an immediate help and interest to managers who are concerned with establishing and implementing structures in different places. However, Mead and Andrews (2009) indicate that HofstedeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s research only shows that: (1) Work related values are n ot universal, (2) If a multinational headquarters tries to implement same norms in foreign place, their local values are likely to persist, (3) Local values determine how a headquartersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ regulations are interpreted and (4) a multinational that insists of uniformity across foreign investments is in a risk to create morale problems and insufficiencies. Also, by the view of (Bergiel Upson, 2012) examining the dimensions upon Japan and Sweden more focusing deeply:- Hypotheses Improvement The U.S. culture may be inclined by supplementary cultures. One such method is the mounting incidence of teams and groups in organizations. Simultaneously, the established Japanese civilization has been repeatedly viewed as very masculine, collectivist, and long term oriented. Conversely, a lot of years of communication sandwiched between Japan and western countries might have led them to happen to more individualistic, short term sloping and feminist. By utilizing HofstedeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s cultural dimensions as a scaffold, and comparing our outcome to those of his inventive trial, we are capable to discover and investigate this convergence of these cultures. Power Distance: Japan is close to the global standard in power distance, whereas Sweden is also significantly different from USA culture, according to HofstedeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s studies. Though, new trends recommend that the Japanese foundation for subject folks in power further frequently. This transform has occurred considerably in the supporting ground where nearby have been no smaller number than 14 prime ministers in the very last 20 years (Economist, 2010). In the inventive data as of the IBM inspection in the 1970Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s the U.S. had an assessment score of 40 moreover, Japan had an assessment score of 50 and Sweden had 31 on the power distance dimension. Individualism Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Collectivism: In earlier studies, Japan has tended to slouch in the direction of the collectivist conclusion of the individualism / collectivism dimension. In the past, a foremost issue of JapanÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s collectivism was its aptitude to afford full service to its citizens (Economist, 1994a). Though, there are cryptograms that this lock association among company and employee is becoming strained. Further, white collar workers are being laid off owing to a distended administration system (Schlender, 1994). The U.S. had a worthy score of 91 and Japan had a worthy score of 41 and Sweden had 71 in regards to the individualism / collectivism dimension in HofstedeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s innovative revision. It is projected that junction has occurred among these cultures as the U.S. has turned out to be more collectivist and Japan has turned out to be more individualistic and Sweden stands somewhere between them. Masculinity: indicate the point toward the central standards of a culture are masculine (e.g., assertive and competitive). Masculinity pertains to societies in which common sex roles are obviously different (i.e., men are made-up to be assertive, rough, and paying attention on material accomplishment while women are theoretical to be new humble, caring, and anxious with the value of life. Femininity the social sex roles extend beyond i.e., equally men and women are made-up to be self-effacing, caring, and anxious with the excellence of life. Sweden culture is more feministic and value of quality of life is very high. Japan and USA are on other side very high on masculinity index. Uncertainty avoidance (UA): Can be distinct as the degree in the direction of the members of a culture feel endangered by doubtful or indefinite situation and struggle to pass up such situation. This sentiment is, amongst other belongings, uttered during panicky stress and is required for inevitability: a need for printed and spoken rules. Japan is high on UA index. As they prefer a highly structured framework due to spending more time on managing risk by extensive work on research and development. On the other hand Sweden and USA are low on UA index. Specifically Swedish does not keep structured routine. Long-Term Orientation The U.S. and Swedish are both low on this scale and being capitalistic economies they prefer short term goals, whereas Japan secured 77 marks which indicates that the Japanese make plans for long terms considering social well-being and impact of their decisions on an individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s life. Leaders of the USA working in Japan and Sweden will be required to change their organizational behaviors, according to the local culture by giving a more structured framework for Japan and more relaxed routines for Sweden for achieving maximum output. For both countries Leadership style must be paternalistic so leaders can be considered not as boss but a facilitator. References: Bilton, T., Bonnett, K., Jones, P., Sheard, K., Stanworth, M. and Webster, A.(1987)Introductory Sociology(Second edition), Macmillan Education, London. Doole, I. and Lowe, R. (2004) International Marketing Strategy: Analysis, Development and Implementation, 4th edition. London: Thomson Learning Economist. (2010). Into the unknown: A special report on Japan. Nov. 20, 1Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å"16. Economist. (1994a). Root or branch? Feb 26, 64. Erich B. Bergiel Blaise J. Bergiel John W. Upson(2012), Case study, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âAmerican Journal of Management vol. 12(1) Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã . [Online] Available from https://www.na-businesspress.com/ajm/bergieleb_web12_1_.pdf (Retrieved: 20-04-2014). Hofstede, G. (1980) Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"Motivation, leadership and organization: do American theories apply abroad?Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ Organizational Dynamics Vol. 9 No. 1 pp. 42-63 Hofstede, Cultural Dimensions Japan and Sweden analysis, available at: https://geert-hofstede.com/countries.html Joe Tidd John Bessant (2013), Case Study, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âDeveloping an organizational culture that facilitates radical innovation in a mature small to medium sized company: Emergent findings (Working paper series) February 2004Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã , Managing Innovation, Available at: https://w ww.managing-innovation.com/case_studies/Cerulean.pdf Mead, Richard, Andrews, Tim G. (2009) International management: culture and beyond fourth edition, Wiley Nonaka, I. and Takeuchi, H. (2011) Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"The Wise LeaderÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ Harvard Business Review Vol 89 Issue 5 Schein, E.H. (1984)Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"Coming to a NewAwareness of Organizational CultureÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ SloanManagement ReviewVol. 25 Winter pp. 3-16 Schlender, B. R. (1994). Japans white collar blues. Fortune, 129, 97 Schein, E.H. (1991)Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"What Is Culture?Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ in Frost, P.J., Moore, L.F., Louis, M.R., Lundberg, C.C. and Martin, J. (Editors),Reframing Organizational Culture, Sage , NewburyPark, California, pp. 243-253 Schein, E.H. (1992)Organizational Culture and Leadership(Second edition), Jossey-Bass , San Francisco.
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Autism is simultaneously the most familiar and least understood disorder. Autism spectrum disorder is defined as a developmental disorder that involves problems with social communication, social interaction, and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. Like all disorders, there are biological, social, and therapeutic implications. Firstly, like many disorders there are several biological factors. Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder, therefore Autism affects the development of the brain in utero. Furthermore, according to Simon Baron Cohen, professor at Cambridge University, Ã¢â¬Å"Autism is a lifelong condition and that itÃ¢â¬â¢s the way the child is born. Probably because of prenatal factors, you donÃ¢â¬â¢t expect the person to kind of grow out of their autismÃ¢â¬ (Cohen). Moreover, Cohen reinforces the notion that the causes of Autism spectrum disorder are primarily biological. The professor then goes on to explain the possible prenatal causes of the d isorder. There are some genes that contribute to Autism. Although, many of the genes are on the X-Chromosome, the autism genes may vary depending of the number of X-Chromosomes. Thus, males have a much higher frequency of Autism than females do. However, the genes are not what Cohen hypothesizes to be the cause. Ã¢â¬Å"WeÃ¢â¬â¢ve been looking the role of that hormone [testosterone] in shaping brain development in typical children and whether higher levels of prenatal testosterone are linked to more autistic traitsÃ¢â¬ (Cohen).Show MoreRelatedAutism Spectrum Disorder and its Causes Essay906 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswith autism spectrum disorder. Since then, there has been a drastic increase on the incidents of this disorder. In 2013, according to the Centers for Disease Control, Autism spectrum disorder occurs in one out of eighty eight children. (CDC, 2013) That is a significant increase over a relatively short period of time. With such an increase, it is important to learn w hat autism spectrum disorder is and what might cause it. Autism spectrum disorder is the term used for a group of disorders in brainRead MoreUnderlying Causes Of Autism Spectrum Disorder1882 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesUnderlying Causes of Autism Spectrum Disorder Ariel Robinson Biology 4800-Fall 2016 Autism Spectrum Disorder is a developmental disorder that displays characteristics of significant impairments in social interactions and communication, obsessive interests, and repetitive behaviors.1 The DSM-5 characterizes Autism Spectrum Disorder as having a range of symptoms with varying severity, hence the term Ã¢â¬Å"spectrumÃ¢â¬ .2 Figure 1 shows a representation of the symptoms and sub-types of disorders that are characterizedRead MoreThe Causes Of Autism Spectrum Disorder ( ASD )1407 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) was introduced in 2013 by the American Psychiatric Association as a disorder comprising four previous mental health disorders: autistic disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, pervasive-developmental disorder, and Asperger syndrome (Autism Speaks, 2017). As a whole, ASD presents with specific symptoms such as social and communication challenges, restrictive or repetitive behavior, and unique strengths and differences. The diagnosis of AS D is graded on a spectrumRead MoreIs Vaccines A Cause Of Autism Spectrum Disorder?1257 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbe a cause of Autism Spectrum Disorder. The CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, states that this is false. The CDC repeatedly says that there is no link between these two. There have been studies showing that the ingredients in vaccines are not the cause of Autism. Ã¢â¬Å"One vaccine ingredient that has been studied specifically is thimerosal, a mercury-based preservative used to prevent contamination of multidose vials of vaccines. Research shows that thimerosal does not cause ASDÃ¢â¬ Read MoreIs Vaccines A Cause Of Autism Spectrum Disorder?1179 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescan be a cause of Autism Spectrum Disorder. The CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, states that this is false. The CDC repeatedly says that there is no link between these two. They have studies showing that the ingredients in vaccines are not the cause of Autism. Ã¢â¬Å"On e vaccine ingredient that has been studied specifically is thimerosal, a mercury-based preservative used to prevent contamination of multidose vials of vaccines. Research shows that thimerosal does not cause ASDÃ¢â¬ (CentersRead MoreMmr Vaccine Can Cause Autism Spectrum Disorder Essay2192 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesvaccinations. Although vaccines are said to reduce the chance of receiving certain infections or diseases, controversial ideas believe that the MMR vaccine can cause autism spectrum disorder. Autism is a developmental disorder that impairs communication and interaction; it has no confirmed cause. Usually, a child begins to show signs of autism around 12 to 18 months, which is also the same age when a child receives the MMR vaccine. Because of this correlation, apprehensive parents are choosing to notRead MoreAutism Spectrum Disorder : Causes, Characteristics, Implications, And Management Since It Has No Cure Essay1459 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction Autism is a disorder that affects social communication skills, speech, intellectual ability and fine and gross motor skills. It is a developmental disorder that is diagnosed during childhood, when diagnosed with this disorder it is expected to stretch throughout life since it has no cure. The disorder is officially known as autism spectrum disorder. This is so because the diagnoses has five spectrum namely; Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, pervasive developmentalRead MoreAutism Spectrum Disorder And Autism1389 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Autism Spectrum Disorder Autism is a form of Ã¢â¬Å"ASD,Ã¢â¬ Autism Spectrum disorder and is experienced all around the world. Autism is a developmental disorder that consists of many neurodevelopmental disorders of the brain. People with autistic disorder think and act in different ways than most people. There are many different forms of autism spectrum disorder that include the pervasive development disorder, Asperger syndrome, and autistic disorder. These disorders are called spectrum disorders becauseRead MoreAutism Spectrum Disorder and its Characteristics Essay1285 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswith autism spectrum disorder. Since then, there has been a drastic increase of the incidence of this disorder. In 2013, according to the Centers for Disease Control, autism spectrum disorder occurs in one out of eighty eight children. (CDC, 2013) That is a significant increase over a relatively short period of time. With such an increase, it is important to learn what autism spectrum disorder is and what might cause it. Autism spectrum disorder is the term used for a group of disorders in brainRead MoreAutism Spectrum Disorder And Autism Essay1474 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesresearch done on abnormal diseases to understand the causes, functions, and effects or the diseases. One of the most widely known abnormal disorders is Autism Spectrum Disorder. Autism is a complicated disorder because it represents a wide range of developmental disorders categorized by criteria such as: impaired social interactions, verbal and nonverbal communication breakdowns, and repetitive behaviors. Since Autism Spectrum Disorder is on a spectrum, as the name suggests, there are individuals with
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The United States has been tricking its people for over 50 years, the government continues to say that marijuana is harmful to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s health and well-being, yet the positives of this drug outweigh the very few negatives. There have been countless studies trying to pin at least one serious side effect of smoking or ingesting marijuana, but these studies are ultimately unsuccessful. Marijuana in fact, has many health benefits, ones that can cure or suppress many modern diseases, some of which can modern medicine to shame, why would we need anything else? There are many other more dangerous drugs on the market. Tobacco, Alcohol and prescription pills, these three things kill hundreds of thousands of people annually, but the governmentÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Serious, life threatining diseases like cancer have been effectively treated from medical marijuana. It has been known to suppress cancer, help depression, reduce blood pressure, treat glaucoma, alleviate pain and even i nhibit HIV, it is also an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. Ã¢â¬Å"The late Dr. Tod Mikuriya, a former national administrator of the U.S. governments marijuana research programs, appeared in a film about the business of marijuana prohibition shortly before his 2007 death called The UnionÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ËAfter dealing with about 10,000 patents in the last 15 years, Id say about 200 different medical conditions respond favorably to cannabis,Ã¢â¬â¢ Mikuriya saidÃ¢â¬ (Smith). Marijuana is the future of medicine; it will save countless lives without the serious risk of taking others. MarijuanaÃ¢â¬â¢s healthy benefits come from the two compounds that make up the plant, THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (Cannibidiol), these two things are what make the plant so great. THC is the compound in the plant that gets one Ã¢â¬Å"highÃ¢â¬ and the reason why most recreational users partake. Even though THC has many health benefits, the plants real healing properties come from the compound CBD. This is the part of the plant that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t get one Ã¢â¬Å"highÃ¢â¬ thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why most growers have bred plants that have no signs of CBD. Ã¢â¬Å"The problem is growers realized decades ago that THC is what sells: it provides the floating, Euphoric feelingShow MoreRelatedThe Legalization Of Marijuana Legalization1061 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Legalization of Cannabis in Ohio Marijuana is a controversial topic all across the United States. Recently marijuana has been voted on, legalized, and denied legalization in multiple states. There are still more states trying to fight the green fight for marijuana. The fight for legalization hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t been an easy one for cannabis supporters; they have been fighting tooth and nail to make it happen. One of the main concerns in the marijuana debates are whether or not marijuana is a gateway drugRead MoreLegalization Of Marijuana And Marijuana1633 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBalyuk March 8, 2016 Legalization of Marijuana Marijuana has a few different names that are commonly used in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society including weed and cannabis. Weed is smoked with joints, bongs, or pipes. Marijuana can also be mixed with foods usually brownies, cookies, and candy which are called edibles. The main chemical responsible for the high feeling is called THC but marijuana also contains over 500 chemicals. The chemical is found in resin produced by the leaves and buds. Ã¢â¬Å"Marijuana is the most commonlyRead MoreThe Legalization Of Marijuana Legalization Essay2566 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagescurrent prohibition on marijuana reforms has put the United States in a similar situation. Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States. According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, Ã¢â¬Å"95 million Americans age 12 and older have tried pot at least once, and three out of every four illicit-drug users reported using marijuana within the previous 30 daysÃ¢â¬ (ONDCP). The decriminalization and eve ntually legalization for the recreational use of marijuana will bring forth benefitsRead MoreThe Legalization Of Marijuana Legalization1282 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages On November 8th, 2016, the California Marijuana Legalization Initiative may be included on the ballot. The people of California will vote on whether to legalize the recreational use of cannabis for adults. The move targets at regulating the consumption of the drug and taxing it like other legalized drugs. California was the first state to legalize medical marijuana in 1996 (National Institute of Drug Abuse). 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However, the medical benefits of the drug seem on the process of chemical compounds as compared to the drug itself. Medical debates show that chemical compound in marijuana are the problem as compared to the plant. The said chemical compound af fects the mental and physical health of the personsRead MoreThe Legalization Of Marijuana Legalization996 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages the monetary gain of its legalization for most has been productive to say the least. For example, Denver Colorado is on track to more than triple the marijuana tax revenue this year alone. $44 million was collected in 2014. In July 2015, 73.5 million was collected, while 19.6 million went to schools. A place such as Chicago could really use the legalization to help with the school system infrastructure issues they have. With a deficit of over 1.1 billion marijuana sales could alleviate bothRead MoreLegalization of Marijuana1550 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLegalization of Marijuana: Benefits and Statistics The topic of legalizing marijuana has been a topic of controversy for quite some time now not only throughout our local streets, but throughout the local and into the state government. The legalization of marijuana is such a controversial topic because some are for it and some are against it. People are for the legalization because of the great uses it has towards medicine, the money that could come from the taxation of legalized marijuana, andRead MoreLegalization of Marijuana972 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesOn January 1st the states of Colorado and Washington officially began the regulation of legal marijuana sales. Thousands of people from all over the country including tourists from Wisconsin, Ohio, Chicago, and even Georgia lined up out front of dispensaries to make a purchase. 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It was a beautiful summerÃ¢â¬â¢s day and the birds were singing sweetly like a church choir of angels. My elder brother, Narvair suggested to my mother and father to go birthday shopping for presents as it was nearing my fifth birthday. As we sauntered down the long drive to the blue Vauxhall Cavalier, the blazing sun almost blinded us. We will write a custom essay sample on Autobiography Ã¢â¬â My earliest memories or any similar topic only for you Order Now We could feel the intense heat so much that sweat was pouring down our faces. As we travelled and approached the motorway, I enquired about our destination, but I was informed that it was a surprise. On the way we passed many fields where there were numerous horses, sheep and cows were grazing. In the far distance I could see the roofs of many houses and the tall pointed steeple of a church. Through the sun roof I could see the cloudless calm blue sky. As we left the motorway, I realised that we were heading for Meadow Hall. At this moment I was full of excitement, but this soon fizzled away, as it took such a long time to find a parking space.Ã Like read about memories? Read alsoÃ Flashbulb memory! Eventually we entered the large, brightly lit shopping mall, jam-packed with people hustling and bustling in and out of the shops. I immediately held my mummyÃ¢â¬â¢s hand in case I strayed away. As we tried to pass the people I peeked through any small spaces in between the busy bodies looking for toy shops. Further along the mall, my grip loosened on my mumÃ¢â¬â¢s hand, as my attention drew towards my brother. Whilst playfully tussling with my brother, I kept a close eye on my mum and dadÃ¢â¬â¢s whereabouts. My mum entered the clothes shop and my dad browsed the sports shop adjacent to it. As we were playing, a bouncy ball fell out of my pocket and rolled down the precinct. Without hesitation I let go of my mumÃ¢â¬â¢s hand and sped after the ball not realising I had soon left my parents and brother well behind. The ball bounced and rolled on being kicked by the on going people. In the long run I caught up with the ball as a gentleman trapped it under his foot. I thanked him and aimlessly ran in random directions seeking my mum and dad. Suddenly I discovered I was all alone and began to shed tears running in and out of shops bellowing for my mum, to no avail. Some time later, I saw a lady clothes shop where there was a lady wearing Indian garments. At this moment I felt relieved and hoped I had found my mum. Spontaneously I dashed towards her, only to find it was a shop window dummy. Amidst the confusion and the strangers, I began to cry and screech but no one would help. Further on the shopping mall I stepped onto the escalator leading up to the top floor. Looking over the railings I had an overview of the ground floor; however I could not see any members of my family. At this point I decided to ask all the passing people of my parentÃ¢â¬â¢s whereabouts, but nobody knew. With exhaustion and blurry eyes I sat on the cold hard floor with my legs through the railings, eager to locate my parents or my brother. Suddenly a security guard crouched down beside me and informed me that it was not a good idea to have my legs dangling through the railings. He then asked me why I was crying. Having told him I had ran away from my parents to find my ball and now was lost. The guard offered to help, comforted and escorted me to the customer service desk. Here he announced over the shopping mallÃ¢â¬â¢s tanoy system: Ã¢â¬Å"Can Mr and Mrs Birdi please come to the customer service desk immediately?Ã¢â¬ On seeing my parents coming I darted towards my mother and clung to her with a tight grip. My parents were very much relieved and delighted to see me. Ã¢â¬Å"Sandeep, where have you been? We have been looking for you,Ã¢â¬ exclaimed my dad. Ã¢â¬Å"I ran after my ball dad,Ã¢â¬ I replied sobbing. Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t ever do it again, let us know where you are going. Now stop crying,Ã¢â¬ my mum said hugging and kissing me. After comforting me, my parents and my brother marched on towards the toy shop. I ran into the toy shop like a charging bull with my brother, but my mum insisted that I calmed down. Still excited I tried to take in all the toys around but eventually I carefully chose a special edition Action Man. It was a large present with many gadgets such as recording radio and a firing machine gun. I had been longing for this present and could not let anyone else handle it. I was really proud and could hardly wait for my birthday, so that I could play with it amongst my other toys. This made me the happiest five years old in the world. To this day I have still kept the Action Man in excellent condition and working order. Even now it is a pleasure to play with it, although I remember how I found my self lost in the huge shopping Mall. How to cite Autobiography Ã¢â¬â My earliest memories, Papers
Running head: Ã¢â¬Å"TYPES OF ALTERNATIVE STRATEGIESÃ¢â¬ Types of Alternative Strategies In APA Style Chikita Martin Herzing University Strategic Management Alternative Strategies There are 11 alternative strategies; forward integration which means gaining ownership or increased control over distributors and retailers, backward integration which is seeking ownership or increased control of a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s suppliers, horizontal integration which is seeking ownership or increased control over competitors, market penetration which is seeking increased market share for present products or services in present markets through greater marketing efforts, product development which is seeking increased sales by improving present products or services or developing new ones, related diversification which is adding new but related products or services, unrelated diversification which is adding new, unrelated products or services, retrenchment which is regrouping through cost and asset reduction to reverse declining sales and profit, divestiture which is selling a division or part of an organization, and liquidation which is selling all of a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s assets, in part s, for their tangible worth. Integration Strategies: Forward, Backward, Horizontal Integration Ã¢â¬Å"There are 6 scenarios in which forward integration can be used effectively for an organization:Ã¢â¬ (David, 2011) 1. When your current distributor is too expensive, unreliable and not meeting the needs of your company. 2. When quality distributors are limited. 3. When an organization competesÃ¢â¬â¢ in an industry that is constantly growing and expected to stay updated which is a factor that reduces the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s chance to diversify if put in the position. 4. When an organization has the capital and human resources to manage the process of distributing their own products and services. 5. When the advantages of stable production is high considering the fact that the organization can predict the demand of output with forward integration. 6. When your current distributors or retailers have high profit margins which suggest that a company profitably distribute their own products and price them competitively by integrating forward. Ã¢â¬Å"There are 7 scenarios in which Backward Integration may be an effective strategy:Ã¢â¬ (David, 2011) 1. When an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s current suppliers are too expensive, unreliable, or incapable of meeting the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s needs for parts, components, assemblies, or raw materials. 2. When the number of suppliers is small and the number of competitors is large. 3. When an organization competes in an industry that is growing rapidly; this is a factor because integrative-type strategies reduce an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to diversify in a declining industry. 4. When an organization has the capital and human resources to manage the process of supplying its own raw materials. 5. When the advantages of stable prices are particularly important; this is a factor because an organization can stabilize the cost of its raw materials and the association price of its product(s) through backward integration. 6. When your current suppliers have high profit margins, which suggests that the business of supplying products or services in the give industry is a worthwhile venture. 7. When an organization needs to quickly acquire a needed resource. Ã¢â¬Å"These 5 Guidelines indicate when Horizontal Integration may be an effective strategy:Ã¢â¬ (David, 2011) 1. When an organization can gain monopolistic characteristics in a particular area or region without being challenged by the federal government for Ã¢â¬Å"tending substantiallyÃ¢â¬ to reduce competition. 2. When an organization competes in a growing industry. 3. When increased economies of scale provide major competitive advantages. 4. When an organization has the capital and human talent needed to successfully manage an expanded organization. 5. When competitors are faltering due to a lack of managerial expertise or a need for particular resources that an organization possesses; note that horizontal integration would not be appropriate if competitors are doing poorly, because in that case overall industry sales are declining. Intensive Strategies: Market Penetration, Market Product Development Ã¢â¬Å"These 5 guidelines indicate when market penetration may be an especially effective strategy:Ã¢â¬ (David, 2011) 1. When current markets are not saturated with a particular product or service. 2. When the usage rate of present customers could be increased significantly. 3. When the market shares of major competitors have been declining while total industry sales have been increasing. 4. When the correlation between dollar sales and dollar marketing expenditures historically has been high. 5. When increased economies of scale provide major competitive advantages. These 6 guidelines indicate when market development may be an esp ecially effective strategy:Ã¢â¬ (David, 2011) 1. When new channels of distribution are available that are reliable; inexpensive, and of good quality. 2. When an organization is very successful at what it does. 3. When new untapped or unsaturated markets exist. 4. When an organization has the needed capital and human resources to manage expanded operations. 5. When an organization has excess production capacity. 6. When an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s basic industry is rapidly becoming global in scope. Ã¢â¬Å"These 5 guidelines indicate when product development may be an especially effective strategy to pursue. Ã¢â¬ (David, 2011) 1. When an organization has successful products that are in the maturity stage of the product life cycle; the idea here is to attract satisfied customers to try new (improved) products as a result of their positive experience with the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s present products or services. 2. When an organization competes in an industry that is characterized by rapid technological developments. 3. When major competitors offer better-quality products at comparable prices. 4. When an organization competes in a high-growth industry. 5. When an organization has especially strong research and development capabilities. Diversification Strategies: Related Unrelated Diversification Ã¢â¬Å"There are 6 guidelines for when related diversification may be an effective strategy are as follows:Ã¢â¬ (David, 2011) 1. When an organization competes in a no-growth or a slow-growth industry. 2. When adding new, but related, products would significantly enhance the sales of current products. 3. When new, but related products could be offered at highly competitive prices. 4. When new, but related products have seasonal sales levels that counterbalance an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s existing peaks and valleys. 5. When an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s products are currently in the declining stage of the productÃ¢â¬â¢s life cycle. 6. When an organization has a strong management team. Ã¢â¬Å"There are 10 guidelines for when unrelated diversification may be an especially effective strategy are as follows:Ã¢â¬ (David, 2011) 1. When revenues derived from an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s current products or services would increase significantly by adding the new, unrelated products. 2. When an organization competes in a highly competitive and/or no-growth industry, as indicated by low industry profit margins and returns. 3. When an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s present channels of distribution can be used to market the new products to current customers. 4. When the new products have countercyclical sales patterns compared to an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s present products. 5. When an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s basic industry is experiencing declining annual sales and profits. 6. When an organization has the capital and managerial talent needed to compete successfully in a new industry. 7. When an organization has the opportunity to purchase an unrelated business that is an attractive investment opportunity. 8. When there exists financial synergy between the acquired and acquiring firm. (Note that the key difference between related and unrelated diversification is that the former should be based on some commonality in markets, products, or technology, whereas the latter should be based more on profit considerations. 9. When existing markets for an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s present products are saturated. 10. When antitrust action could be charged against an organization that historically has concentrated on a single industry. Defensive Strategies: Retrenchment, Divestiture Liquidation Ã¢â¬Å"There are 5 guidelines for when Retrenchment may be an especially effective strategy to pursue are as follows:Ã¢â¬ (David, 2011) 1. When an organization has clearly distinctive competence but has failed consistently to meet its objectives and goals over time. 2. When an organization is one of the weaker competitors in a given industry. 3. When an organization is plagued by inefficiency, low profitability, poor employee morale, and pressure from stockholders to improve performance. 4. When an organization has failed to capitalize on external opportunities, minimize external threats, take advantage of internal strengths, and overcome internal weaknesses over time; that is, when the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic managers have failed (and possibly will be replaced by more competent individuals). 5. When an organization has grown so large so quickly that major internal reorganization is needed. There are 6 guidelines for when Divestiture may be an especially effective strategy to pursue as follows:Ã¢â¬ (David, 2011) 1. When an organization has pursued a retrenchment strategy and failed to accomplish needed improv ements. 2. When a division needs more resources to be competitive than the company can provide. 3. When a division is responsible for an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s overall poor performance. 4. When a division is a misfit with the rest of an organization; this can result from radically different markets, customers, managers, employees, values, or needs. 5. When a large amount of cash is needed quickly and cannot be obtained reasonably from other sources. 6. When government antitrust action threatens an organization. These 3 guidelines indicate when Liquidation may be an especially effective strategy to pursue as follows:Ã¢â¬ (David, 2011) 1. When an organization has pursued both retrenchment strategy and a divestiture strategy, and neither has been successful. 2. When an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s only alternative is bankruptcy. Liquidation represents an orderly and planned means of obtaining the greatest possible cash for an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s assets. A company can legally declare bankr uptcy first and then liquidate various divisions to raise needed capital. 3. When the stockholders of a firm can minimize their losses by selling the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s assets. In conclusion, I choose the Liquidation Strategy because it is an example of defeat. All though, it may be better to shut the business down and sell it piece by piece then it would be to continue operating you business. In doing so, you may not only be able to pay off what you owe for starting the business, but you just might be able to have something left over to start a new business venture. This has an effect on businesses in a good and bad way. Good if a similar or related company decides to buy it and add it to what they already have going on and somehow make things better. Bad for the people who really didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to close their business and lay off workers but they had no other choice. References David, Fred R. (2011). Strategic Management Concepts and Cases. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education, Inc
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Group Analytical Report Employee Behaviour and Working Relationships . Answer: Introduction The study paper has been described to discuss the management of one of the fundamental business ethical dilemmas. Precisely, contemporary business organisations need to identify the foundational issues related to business ethics, so that management of workforce will become effective. In the management of employee behaviour and working relationships, one of the most conventional ethical dilemmas is managers role in dealing with the claims of workplace harassment. Through the identification of the particular business ethics dilemma, the study considers moral reasoning and significant ethical principles describing the issue from a broader perspective (Dale, 2016). Moreover, the issue has been discussed at the individual level, organisational level, and corporate social level to define the impact on the same based on moral stance. Notably, the critical analysis of the identified issue has been illustrated in the study based on the question of morality and challenges to be considered by modern firms. However, the importance of ethics to the contemporary business management must be evaluated at the individual, organisational, and corporate social level. Dealing with the issue of ethical dilemmas such as workplace bullying or harassment claim management in the management of employee behaviour and working relationships, the role of the manager should be evident. Meanwhile, ignoring the workplace bullying or workplace harassment cases can create an adverse impact on the employee engagement and reputation of the firm (Teare, 2016). Identification of the ethical dilemma Modern organisations need to identify the essence of employee relation management so that any internal ethical issues can be dealt with severity. Precisely, the management of the human resource must protect the civil rights of the employees to avoid issues leading to discriminatory harassment due to gender, religion, race, colour, and employee background, etc (O'Leary-Kelly and Bowes-Sperry, 2001). In order to control the problems of managing workplace bullying and harassment claims, suitable organisational ethical code of conduct and employee regulations must be developed. By considering the law of discrimination, such ethical problems should be tackled irrespective of any other aspects (Armstrong and Francis, 2014). However, the manager needs to investigate the impact of the issue at the broader level so that the damage control must be done quickly. For instance, some of the reputed companies have tried to solve the issue internally so that the overall status and reputation of the business cannot be hampered (Stevens, 2010). Herein, the ethical liability of the company should be questioned. Furthermore, in dealing with the ethical dilemmas such as workplace bullying and harassment claims in managing employee behaviour and working relationships, the management team needs to verify each aspect of the problem as the issue can affect the employment of an individual employee (McCabe and Hardman, 2005). Apparently, the ethical code of conduct and workplace guidelines must state the employees what actions should be acceptable within the workplace. Understandably, workplace bullying can destroy the entire culture of the business organisation. For a managers point of view, in the decision-making of a harassment claim, it is important to investigate the type of humiliation involved in the case. Proper investigation and evidence must be conducted so that the emotional stress of the plaintiff can be redeemed (Lieber, 2008). However, certain challenges must be overcome by the managers dealing with the issues of managing harassment claims and workplace bullying. One of the most significant challenges in managing the cases of workplace harassment is the position of the accused. In many of the instances, the senior executives have been accused of the harassing the staff members based on sex, gender, race, or religion, etc (Fevre, Grainger and Brewer, 2010). Therefore, managers may face significant administrative pressure to handle the case internally. As a result of the consequences, independent investigation and witness related to the case can be manipulated. Alternatively, in the case of sexual harassment claims and other discriminatory cases, responding to the complaints has been delayed so that the severity of the matter cannot affect the culture of the organisation (Hirsh and Lyons, 2010). However, in the management of employee behaviour and working relationships based on moral and ethical aspects, managers need to evaluate what is right according to the stated ethical code of conduct. The decision-making standards of the manager need to distinct the practice of workplace romance and sexual harassment so that the accused employee can get the right punishment for the offence (Boland, 2005). By listing the inappropriate behaviours that can be considered as workplace bullying, managers of the modern firms can ensure right practices while handling such cases of harassment claims (Thrasher et al., 2016). If an employee has been found guilty, legal actions should be taken to set an example. Analysis of the issue in all level The ethical dilemmas have several implications of the organisation at different levels. For example, the individuals facing the harassments are directly impacted by the issues. On the other hand, the managers as a representative of the organisation need to deal with the issues or uncertainties (Trevin?o and Nelson, 2011). Furthermore, the ethical issues may result in loss of reputation of the organisation among the external stakeholders of the firm. Hence, it is important for the HR department to maintain separate policies and strategies to deal with the ethical dilemmas to smoothly carry on the operations of the firm. The influence of workplace harassment in different levels have been analysed in details in the below section. Individual Level It is a responsibility of a person to work according to the policies of the organisation and to help others working in a safe and secured environment. Furthermore, in the management of employee behaviour and working relationships, the role of the managers is to provide a better working condition to the employees in order to improve their performance. The ethical dilemma of workplace harassment management has several negative impacts over the individuals who face such issues. On the other hand, it impacts the morality of the surrounding people working under the same condition. The effect of harassment over an individual may range from simple frustration to extreme depression (O'Leary-Kelly and Bowes-Sperry, 2001). The subjects of these types of behaviours often lose their morale and self esteem. Moreover, the incidents may lead the subjects to frequent disruption and make them unable to concentrate on their jobs. The issues of workplace harassment may lead to inconsistent timekeeping, lack of commitment, increased absenteeism. On the other hand, low performance may even lead to resignation (Trevin?o and Nelson, 2011). Additionally, anxieties can also be noticed in the life of the victims as well as their family. It can be seen through study that irrespective of different HR policies and strict government regulations, several cases of workplace harassment can be seen throughout the globe. Hence, the development of policies and ways to handle the situations will not be the ultimate way to mitigate the issue. The management must focus on developing the mindset among every individual in the workforce to influence people committing such nuisance (Trevin?o and Nelson, 2011). Organisational Level In context to the impact of workplace on the organisational level, the reduced morale and self-esteem of the employees directly influences the affectivity and performance of the organisation. The cases of workplace harassment impact the motivation and satisfaction level of the victims (Thrasher et al., 2016). On the other hand, the cases of ethical dilemmas also influence the surrounding employees who are not directly connected to the issue. Workplace harassment leads to high employee turnover, absenteeism, reduce productivity, lose of initiative, lack of creativity, and lack of performance (Oyewunmi, 2013). Hence, the issues of harassment lead to negative impact over the organisation and its internal reputation. Precisely, by admitting consequentiality theory of morality and ethics, responsibility towards the employees should be protected and promoted by the management of any organisation. Such theoretical aspect will influence the decision making of the managers dealing in claims o f workplace harassment. It is important for the managers to deal with the cases of workplace harassment on a serious note. The managers act as a representative of the organisation and must help the employees facing such problems. It is the duty of the managers to promote people to come up and speak to the management regarding such issues (Perry, 2013). On the other hand, the personal feelings of the managers must not interfere with the objectives required to handle such problems in the organisation (Geppert and Roberts, 2007). Hence, it is important for the managers to maintain good relationship with the workforce to know every detail of the daily operations and avoid the occurrence of such ethical dilemmas in the workplace. Corporate Social Level By setting poor examples of ethical disputes within the business environment, the upward success graph of the corporate business can be cut short. Precisely, failure to control the ethical issues within the corporate management, organisations can face substantial challenges such as legal issues, employee performance, employee relations, and credibility issues in business dimension. Following the duty theory of ethics, foundational principle must be taken into consideration by the management to deal with the cases and claims of harassment within the organisation. The duty theory promotes right things first irrespective of any situation. During the management of sexual harassment scandals or humiliation of employee, company guidelines and legal directives should be followed at the highest level to protect the corporate social dignity of the enterprise. If the management of modern firms have failed to mitigate the workplace harassment cases, scandals regarding harassment issues can dire ctly make an adverse impact on the organisational status as well as financial position of the company (Fevre, Grainger and Brewer, 2010). Due to such ethical issues and controversies, the stakeholders and investors may have lost their faith on the company. As a result of the scenario, the overall business proceedings can be diminished. At the same time, if such ethical issues cannot be handled according to the law and directives, a negative message can be sent to the rest of the workforce. Therefore, the intensity and employee engagement at the work will be reduced. Thus, the employee productivity will be affected as well. Furthermore, failure to deal with such ethical dilemmas can adversely affect the employee relations. Unethical behaviours in the workforce can increase tension among the employees. Thus, the collaboration and dedication within the workforce will reduce in a substantial order. On a broader perspective, failure to manage the workplace bullying and other harassment cases can be a huge setback towards the business credibility of the firm (Faldu, 2012). Due to lack of ethical guidelines, the organisation may have lost their target audience. Meanwhile, the impact of such event will be substantial in the business framework. Also, the consumer confidence towards the organisation will be reduced as well. Recommendation On the basis of the above analysis, it is important for the management of every organisation to take necessary steps in order to mitigate the ethical dilemmas and develop a healthy and safe workplace for the employee. Some recommendations have been discussed herein below to deal with the problems of workplace harassment: Develop policies on workplace harassment: The management must develop policies to deal with the workplace harassment. The HR policies must state the necessary actions that are to be taken in the cases of such grievances. Additionally, a handbook related to workplace regulations must be developed and distributed among the employees to make them aware of such issues and their consequences. On the other hand, equal employment policies must be maintained in the organisation to maintain a better working environment. Training and Development: In the management of employee behaviour and working relationships, proper training must be provided to every member of the organisation regarding the disciplinary actions taken against the workplace harassment grievances. Moreover, training must be provided to the managers to handle such situations and develop ethical knowledge among the management. Encourage employees to complain such issues: Finally, the management must encourage ethical practices in the organisation by motivating every worker to complain against any issue at workplace. The management can take steps against the person found guilty only after the proper support the workforce. Hence, ethical practices must be promoted by encouraging the employees to take necessary steps. Conclusion By considering the above analysis, the management is responsible for maintaining the organisational behaviour and promote corporate culture in the firm. There are several cases of workplace harassments that are faced by the organisation that directly impacts the productivity and reputation of the firm. On the other hand, the issues of workplace harassments lead to anxiety in the life of the victims and their family. Hence, it is the duty of the managers to promote ethical practices in the firm by developing adequate HR policies and introducing appropriate training and development programmes. Conclusively, the management must take necessary steps to manage the ethical dilemmas to maintain a safe and health workplace for the employees. References Armstrong, A. and Francis, R. (2014). Assessing Ethical Governance in a Policing Environment.Journal of Law and Governance, 3(3). Boland, M. (2005).Sexual harassment in the workplace. 1st ed. Naperville, Ill.: Sphinx Pub. Dale, O. (2016). Ethical issues and stakeholders matter.Addiction, 111(4), pp.587-589. Faldu, D. (2012). Social Responsibility and Ethical Issues in Managing Global Business.International Journal of Scientific Research, 3(7), pp.248-250. Fevre, R., Grainger, H. and Brewer, R. (2010). Discrimination and Unfair Treatment in the Workplace.British Journal of Industrial Relations, 49, pp.s207-s235. Geppert, C. and Roberts, L. (2007). 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